EL Civics for ESL Students

Civil War

Civics Test - U.S. History and Government
Battle of Gettysburg, July 5 or 6, 1863

President Abraham Lincoln, February 1864


1. The capital cities of the North and of the South were only 90 miles apart. Washington, D.C. was the capital of the North and Richmond, Virginia, was the capital of the South.

2. About 970,000 people died during the Civil War, almost 2/3 by disease. This is more casualties than all other U.S. wars combined.

3. About 4 million African-American slaves were freed in 1865.

4. The South was rebuilt and forced to change during a period called Reconstruction that lasted from 1865 to 1877.

  • The Civil War started in 1861 and ended in 1865.
  • It was a war between the North and the South.
  • There were three problems that led to the civil war:
  • 1. slavery
    2. economic reasons
    3. states' rights

  • There were many large farms in the South, and they used African-American slaves to work on the farms.
  • Slaves work for free and aren't allowed to go where they want or to make decisions. Slaves are often mistreated.
  • As the United States expanded west, new states were added to the country.
  • The North was against allowing slavery in these new states, but the South was for it.
  • The South didn't want to be part of the United States anymore, but President Lincoln and the people in the North didn't want the country to be divided.
  • The South formed a new country called the Confederate States of America. It's capital was in Richmond, Virginia, and its President was Jefferson Davis.
  • The North suffered more casualties than the South, but it had a larger army, and it won the war.
  • After the civil war ended, the 13th Amendment was passed. It freed the slaves.
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